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According to his argument "Memory laws have become a weapon of choice in the memory wars fought within and between different national communities all across Europe". Regarding the origin to this process, the point that these developments have occurred with "Americanization of the Holocaust" that was response to the identity crisis among Jewish-American people, "black power" empowered during the civil rights movement, etc. Lynn Hunt raised "identity politics" as one of the four paradigms that formed historiography since the s in her Writing the History in the Global Era New York, However, has this movement for changing the course of history and realizing justice, begun bringing about the inverse effect, if not lethal side-effects, confronting with the sense of crisis due to the hollowing out of the national identity in the globalized post-Cold War era?

The fact that the fanatical national enthusiasm evoked through "history" and "memory" can be a trigger for conflict has been borne out as we are now witnessing it with neighboring countries on a daily basis. The lecture contributed to clarify the dilemma that nemory laws as a legal reflection of this paradox embraced. At another seminar held on the November 3rd at the University of Tokyo directly entitled "Battles over the Past in Putin's Russia", an attempt was made to analyze the development of memory politics and the strengthening of populism and authoritarianism over time under the Putin administration.

As I mentioned Professor Koposov as the most severe critic against Putin's regime, what burned the image of this resolute figure into my mind were his unbending argument against the political movement toward enactment of the Russian version of memory laws, which had begun in the late s and concluded shortly after the Ukrainian crisis in Though it was easily inferred that an aloof, heavily critical disposition to the legislation might invite difficult events in his life, it was through this development that Professor Koposov decided to challenge the above-mentioned comprehensive historical examination of the political process surrounding the enactment of memory laws all over Europe.

The lecture in Tokyo focused on elucidating the process toward the establishment of the Russian version of the memory laws. The summary of the lecture together with my interpretation is as follows. History had been extremely politicized quite long in the Soviet Era.

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Especially during the perestroika period, the vectors of the historical thinking have been reversed and politically motivated revision of past events had begun proceeding apace. The deconstruction and restructuring of the orthodox narratives of history up to that point became inevitable. On the other hand, while the history of the Soviet Union was pushed to the background under Yeltsin government after the collapse of the USSR, for Putin who came to power under the political and economic crisis, the recycling of past as a resource for political purposes got a great significance in a form different from the Perestroika period.

The revision of past events was conducive along with the political mobilization of the nostalgia for the former regime including a positive image of Stalin, the promotion of the concept of the noble sacrifice for and the glorious victory of the "Great Patriotic War". Especially "War myths" occupied the central part of popular memories, pushing away other memories and making the propagation of the myth an important agenda for politics and diplomacy as an aside, according to the press a few days before writing this short essay, Russian Foreign Minister Lavrov referred to an "approval of the results of World War II" by Japanese side in relation to the conclusion of the Russo-Japanese Peace Treaty can be considered The significance of this oft-repeated word should be understood in the overall context of the Putin administration's history politic.

Regardless, Japanese politicians probably did not understand it at all. War myths thus constructed justify Russia's position in European international politics, placing its priority especially on relations with Eastern European countries, and provoke a conflict with Eastern Europe especially Ukraine, Poland, the Baltic countries. It also became to be regarded as an element against the "Western Crusade against Russia led by the United States". Within this context, Yalta and Nuremberg emerged as symbols in history politics, the final manifestation of which was the Russian version of the memory laws.

Although not frequently used, there are also situations where statements insulting the role of the Soviet Union in the Great Patriotic War are actually tried and punished under this law. Discussions at both seminars, stimulated vigorously by the lecture, was wide-ranging and interesting.

Lars Breuer | Independent Researcher - ketugypi.tk

The discussion at the seminar in Tokyo in particular, despite the small number of participants, was quite fruitful thanks to the high degree of expertise of Russian history researchers. Though the establishment of the Jewish museum in Moscow had been acknowledged with surprise even among the Japanese colleagues, Prof.

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Koposov referred to the establishment of a monument to Holocaust victims in Bryansk. Such changes are also reflected in textbook descriptions and politicians' remarks.

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What this means is difficult to say, but one important viewpoint is that Russia could be conducting a feint operation to Poland and the Baltic countries, which have often manifested a reluctance to recognize the nation's responsibility to Holocaust or anti-Semitism while being forced to accept it in the context of European integration and albeit reluctantly to meet Western European standards on the issue. The deepening of Russia's involvement in the Middle East may also be relevant. Again, the Holocaust has been used in an extremely politicized way in these cases.

It has been pointed out that history politics is also significant from the perspective of the relationship between the right-wing governments of Central and Eastern Europe and the Putin administration.

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It can be seen from this point that history politics is an important factor that cannot be dismissed when considering the Putin administration's global strategy. I would like to express my sincerest gratitude to them. On the first day, Prof. According to Prof. Sakai, outward sentiments and behaviors inherent to Japanese modernization have been proudly accepted and propagated in s in Japan, especially at the centennial anniversary of Meiji Restoration.

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